Father: Imam Ali Amir Mu’minin (AS)
Mother: Fatimah az-Zahra (AS) – the daughter of the Holy Prophet Muhammad.
Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu Muhammad
Laqab (Title): Al-Sibt al Kabir (the elder grandson), Al-Mujtaba
Birth: He was born in Madina on Tuesday, 15th of Ramadan 3 A.H
Martyrdom: at the age of 46 years, at Medina, on Thursday, 28th Safar, 50 A.H
Imam Hasan (AS) Birth
Imam Hasan, the elder son of Hazrat Ali and Janab-e-Fatima, was born on the 15th of Ramadam 3 A.H. in Medina.
Having received the happy news of his grandson’s birth, the Holy Prophet came to the house of his beloved daughter, took the newly born in his arms, recited ‘Adhann & Iqama’ in his right and left ears respectively, and in compliance with God’s command, named him ‘Hasan’.
Imam Hasan (AS) Upbringing
The first phase of seven years of his infancy was blessed with the gracious patronage of the Holy Prophet, who gifted him all his great qualities and adorned him with Divine knowledge to such an extent that he was outstanding in his knowledge, tolerance, intelligence, bounty and valour.
Being an infallible by birth and decorated with Heavenly knowledge by God, his insight had an access to Lauh-e-Mahfooz (the Guarded Tablet on which the transactions of mankind have been written by God for all eternity).
The Holy Imam immediately became conversant with all the contents of the ‘Wahi’ (Quranic verses) revealed when the Holy Prophet would disclose it to his associates. To the great surprise of the Holy Prophet, Janab-e-Fatima would often recite the exact text of the newly revealed ‘Wahi’ before he disclosed it personally to her. When he inquired, she would inform him that it was Hasan through whom she had leaded the Revelation.
Imam Hasan (AS) Remembrane of God
The Holy Imam devoted himself to prayers in such abundance, that all the limbs employed in prostrations bore scars and impressions of his ‘Sajda’.
Most of the nights were spent on the prayer-carpet. The scene of his absorption and humiliation in prayers to God were in such earnest that he would shed tears profusely out of fear of God. While performing ablution, he trembled with the fear of God and his face grew pale at the time of prayers.
His earnest mediation in the offering of prayers and his extreme absorption in the communion with God would render him entirely unconscious of his environments.
Imam Hasan (AS) Piousness and Contentment
Imam Hasan had the worldly possessions at his disposal and could have well enjoyed a luxurious life, but he utilised all of it in the betterment of the condition of the poor.
He was so courteous and humble that he never hesitated to sit along with the beggars in the lanes and on the thoroughfares of Medina to reply to some of their religious queries.
Through his cordial attitude and hospitality he never let the poor and the humble feel inferior to him when they visited his abode.
Imam Hasan (AS) Imamate
The death of the Holy Prophet was followed by an eventful era when the Islamic world came in the grip of the fever of expansionism and conquest.
But even under such a revolutionary phase, Imam Hasan kept devoting himself to the sacred mission of peacefully propagating Islam and the teachings of the Holy Prophet along with his great father Imam Ali (AS).
The martyrdom of Imam Ali on the 21st of Ramadan marked the inception of Imam Hasan’s Imamat. The majority of the Muslims pledged their allegiance to him and finalsed the formality of ‘Bajat’ (Oath of Allegiance).
No sooner had he taken the leadership into his hands thatn he had to meet the challenge of Muawiya, the Governor of Syria, who declared a war against him.
In Compliance with the Will of God and with a view to refrain from causing the massacre of Muslims however, he entered into a peace treaty with Muawiya on terms which saved Islam and stopped a civil war.
But this peace treaty was never meant as a surrender by him of the permanent leadership to Muawiya. It was meant only as an interim transfer of the administration of the Islamic Kingdom, subject to the condition that administration would be surrender back to Imam Hasan after Muawiya’s death and then it would in turn be inherited by Imam Husain.
Having relieved himself of the administration responsibilities, Imam Hasan kept the religious leadership with himself and devoted his life to the propagation of Islam and the teachings of the Holy Prophet in Medina.
Imam Hasan (AS) Wafat / Martyrdom
Muawiya’s malice against Imam Hasan led him to conspire with Imam wife Juda, the daughter of Ashas. She was made to give the Imam some poison which affected his liver.
Imam Hasan thus succumbed to Muawiya’a fatal mischief and attained his martyrdom on 28th Safar 50 A.H. His funeral was attend by Imam Husain and the members of the Hashimite family. His bier whilst being taken for burial to the Prophet’s tomb was shot at with arrows by his enemies, and it has to be diverted for burial to the Jannat-ul-Baqi at Medina. His tom was demolished, along with others in 1925 A.D (English Calendar).
The terms of the peace treaty were soon violated, but earned only a short-lived glory for Muawiya. Its aftermath proved disastrous and doomed the fate of his son Yazid and dealt a fatal blow to the entire family of Ummayyads.